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A Drug / day


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#1 Amber

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المزاج الحالي: مبتهج

تاريخ المشاركة 28/09/2010 - 15:25







ملف مرفق  1.gif
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A Drug / day

,



.


Good morning/evening!




I'm going to post a topic about drugs,

A drug per day !

>> From drugs for dentistry Book

.
Hope you enjoy it !

.

Note: I'll not posted them in an alphabetical order!

.

.

The drug for today is ,...

{Nifedipine = Adalat, Angiopine, Coracten,
Corday, Fortipine, Solfedipine, Tensipine }



.

Description

A calcium-channel blocker.

Indications

Hypertension and angina prophylaxis.

Effects on oral and dental structures

Nifedipine can cause gingival overgrowth, especially in the anterior
part of the mouth: taste disturbances can occur through inhibition of
calcium-channel activity that is necessary for normal function of
taste and smell receptors.

Effects on patient management

None of any significance.

Drug interactions

None of any dental significance.


.

.

see you tomorrow with another drug.



...... It's my Topic in my own Forum :thanks:








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#2 MohdShaya

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المزاج الحالي: مبتهج

تاريخ المشاركة 28/09/2010 - 18:01







thank u a lot for this interesting topicالموضوع مثبت







الـتـوقـيــع

الـجـراد يـأكـل البـعـوض،
والعصفور يفترس الجراد،
والحيّة تصطـاد العصافير،
والـقنفـذ يـقـتـل الـحيّـة،
والـثعـلـب يأكـل الـقنفذ،
والـذئـب يفترس الثعلب،
والأسـد يـقـتـل الـذئـب،
والإنسان يصطاد الأسد،
والبعوض يميت الإنسان ...

هذه هي السلسلة الخالدة لا تبديل لها ولا تغيير.

إما أن تقتل الأسد وإما أن يقتلك البعوض !!
فيا شباب ! لا يغلبكم البعوض ولكن اغلبوا الأسود.

( علي الطنطاوي )


#3 fasool

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المزاج الحالي: رائق

تاريخ المشاركة 28/09/2010 - 19:30







:thanks:








#4 Dr. Abdulaziz

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    أستاذ مشارك

المزاج الحالي: رائق

تاريخ المشاركة 29/09/2010 - 01:47







Excellent start :thanks:








#5 shadowy heart

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    طبيب مقيم

المزاج الحالي: محتار

تاريخ المشاركة 29/09/2010 - 15:00







:thanks:







الـتـوقـيــع

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اغنم الدنيا وعش فيها مريح
لاتخلي زهرة أيامك تروح
ريّح البال المشقّى تستريح
من هواجيسن على الخاطر تلوح


الأمير الشاعر خالد بن سعود الكبير


#6 Amber

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المزاج الحالي: مبتهج

تاريخ المشاركة 29/09/2010 - 17:12







thank u a lot for this interesting topic

الموضوع مثبت

أو زيد

thanks for your support

.



:cream:


fasool'

:dkku:

Excellent start

:dkku:

Dr. Abdulaziz

:thanks:

:dkku:

shadowy heart

:cream:








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#7 Amber

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المزاج الحالي: مبتهج

تاريخ المشاركة 29/09/2010 - 17:15









Lignocaine/Lidocaine dental
preparations
(Lignostab, Lignospan,
Xylocaine, Xylotox)




.

.

Description

An amide local anaesthetic.

Indications

Local anaesthesia (topical and by injection). Lidocaine with epinephrine
is the ‘gold standard’ local anaesthetic for dental anaesthesia.

Presentations

(i) 2.0 mL or 2.2 mL cartridges for injection of a 2% solution
(containing 40 and 44 mg lidocaine respectively).
(ii) 1.8 mL, 2.0 mL or 2.2 mL cartridges for injection of a 2% solution
with 1 : 80,000 epinephrine [adrenaline] (containing 36,
40, and 44 mg lidocaine and 22.5, 25 and 27.5 g epinephrine
respectively).
(iii) Topical preparations containing 1%, 4%, 5% and 10% lidocaine
for intra-oral use.
(iv) As a component of EMLA cream which is a topical anaesthetic
for skin use (EMLA is a 5% mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine).

Dose

Recommended maximum dose is 4.4 mg/kg with an absolute ceiling
of 300 mg.

Contraindications

Allergy to amide local anaesthetics.
Acute porphyria.
EMLA should not be used in infants under one year of age.

Precautions

Reduce dose in hepatic disease.
Epinephrine-containing solutions have additional precautions (see
epinephrine).

Unwanted effects

Central nervous and cardiovascular system depression at high dose.

Drug interactions

Lidocaine prolongs the period of apnoea produced by succinylcholine.
Beta-adrenergic blocking drugs, especially propranolol, increase
the toxicity of lidocaine by inhibiting the liver enzymes that metabolize
the local anaesthetic. Similarly, the calcium-channel blocker
verapamil increases the toxicity of lidocaine. Midazolam reduces the
central nervous system toxicity of lidocaine. Lidocaine and phenytoin
both have depressant effects on the heart, the clinical relevance
of this is probably only important at high doses. The protease inhibitor
drugs used in the management of HIV appear to increase the
plasma levels of lidocaine and potentially increase cardiotoxicity.
Thus the use of alternative local anaesthetics or administration of
minimal doses of lidocaine appears wise.
Liothyronine sodium (Tertroxin)

.

.









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#8 Amber

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المزاج الحالي: مبتهج

تاريخ المشاركة 01/10/2010 - 14:45








Sorry, I'm late !


.


For today I'll post two drugs!


.





Diazepam = (Dialar, Diazemuls, Rimapam,
Stesolid, Tensium, Valclair, Valium)


.

.

Description

A benzodiazepine sedative and anxiolytic drug with anticonvulsant
properties.

Indications

Used in dental sedation and preoperative anxiolysis (although it has
now been superseded by midazolam when intravenous techniques
are employed: for oral sedation temazepam is the drug of choice).
Also indicated in the emergency treatment of epilepsy in the dental
surgery.

Presentations

(i) 2 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg tablets.
(ii) Oral solutions of 2 mg/5 mL and 5 mg/5 mL.
(iii) Solution for injection 5 mg/mL.
(iv) 10 mg suppositories.
(v) Solutions for rectal administration 2 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL

Dose

(i) To treat anxiolysis
2 mg–10 mg three times daily.
(ii) As premedication prior to dental treatment
5–10 mg 1–2 hours prior to the appointment.
(iii) For intravenous dental sedation
incremental doses of 2.5 mg/minute until a satisfactory endpoint
(Verrill’s sign which is drooping of the upper eyelid to
cover half of the pupil). Midazolam has now superseded diazepam
as the intravenous benzodiazepine for dental sedation.
(iv) In the emergency treatment of epilepsy (status epilepticus) in
the dental surgery
5 mg over 1 minute increments intravenously repeated if necessary
up to a dose of 20 mg.

Contraindications

Severe respiratory disease.
Severe liver disease.
Porphyria (although should be used in emergency management of
status epilepticus).

Precautions

History of drug abuse.
Severe liver disease.
Severe muscle weakness (myasthenia gravis).
Pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Unwanted effects

Xerostomia.
Respiratory depression.
Hypotension.
Visual disturbances.

Headache.
Occasionally skin rashes (anaphylaxis is unusual).
Thrombophlebitis after intravenous use.
May produce condition similar to foetal alcohol syndrome including
cleft lip and palate.
Drug dependence.
Sexual fantasy.

Drug interactions

There is synergy with all CNS depressant drugs (including alcohol
and opioid analgesics) leading to an enhanced effect and thus combined
use is best avoided. The antidepressant drugs fluoxetine and
fluvoxamine enhance the effects of diazepam. Severe hypotension and
respiratory depression may occur when diazepam is administered
simultaneously with the antipsychotic drug clozapine and combined
therapy is not recommended.
Cimetidine and omeprazole inhibit the metabolism of diazepam,
thus increasing its sedative effect. In addition the gut motility stimulant
cisapride and the anti-emetic drug metoclopramide enhance the
action of oral diazepam. Similarly, oral contraceptives, the antialcohol
drug disulfiram, the muscle relaxant baclofen, and the cannabinoid
nabilone all increase the effect of diazepam. Beta-adrenergic
drugs reduce metabolism of diazepam but there appears to be little
clinical risk from combined therapy. Similarly, although paracetamol
reduces the excretion of diazepam this is of no clinical importance.
The antibacterials isoniazid and ciprofloxacin inhibit the metabolism
of diazepam whereas rifampicin increases metabolism of the
benzodiazepine. Smoking increases the metabolism of diazepam.
Diazepam affects the metabolism of phenytoin in an inconsistent
manner, in some individuals the anticonvulsant plasma level is
increased in others it is reduced. Carbamazepine possibly reduces the
effects of diazepam, whereas sodium valproate enhances the effect of
the benzodiazepine.
Diazepam can increase the effects of neuromuscular blockers
tubocurarine, vecuronium, and atracurium. It reduces the effects of
levodopa. Diazepam may increase the plasma concentration of the
local anaesthetic bupivacaine. Flumazenil antagonizes the action of
diazepam. Aminophylline also has some antagonistic properties.
Caffeine can counteract some of the hypnotic effects of diazepam.

.

.



.....................................................................................................................................................................




Epinephrine = (adrenaline)

Description

A catecholamine sympathomimetic agent.

Indications

Used in dental local anaesthetic solutions to increase their efficacy
and duration and to aid in haemostasis.

Presentations

Epinephrine is contained in local anaesthetic solutions in concentrations
of 1 : 80,000 (12.5 g/mL), 1 : 100,000 (10 g/mL) and 1 :
200,000 (5 g/mL).

Dose

The maximum recommended dose over one visit in dental local
anaesthetic solutions is 200 g.

Contraindications

Severe cardiac disease such as uncontrolled arrhythmias and unstable
angina are contraindications to the use of epinephrine. The unusual
catecholamine-secreting tumour of the adrenal gland known as
phaeochromocytoma and thyroid storm (an acute hyperthyroid
episode) are other contraindications to epinephrine in dental local
anaesthesia.

Precautions

Dose reduction is wise when cardiac disease exists (see also drug
interactions below).

Unwanted effects

Excessive dosage or inadvertent intravascular injection will produce
symptoms of fear and anxiety such as tachycardia and tremors.
Systolic blood pressure can rise and diastolic blood pressure may
fall. Epinephrine, even at doses used in dentistry, can produce a
hypokalaemia (reduction in plasma potassium) and this can lead to
cardiac arrhythmias.

Drug interactions

Many drug interactions with epinephrine are theoretical, however
some have been shown to produce effects that are clinically important.
Tricyclic antidepressant drugs increase the pressor effects of
epinephrine twofold; as the pressor effects are negligible at the doses
used in dental local anaesthetics then simple dose reduction is all
that is required.
Adrenergic beta-blocking drugs such as propranolol can lead to
unopposed increases in systolic blood pressure and dose reduction of
epinephrine-containing local anaesthetics is advised. Non-potassium
sparing diuretics exacerbate the hypokalaemia produced by epinephrine
and this is apparent at the doses used in dental local anaesthesia;
thus for patients receiving such diuretic therapy epinephrine dose
reduction is advised. The volatile anaesthetics such as halothane
increase cardiac sensitivity to the effects of epinephrine and a 50%
dose reduction in the amount of catecholamine used is advised. Any
agent with sympathomimetic properties has the potential to increase
the toxicity of epinephrine and among these agents are drugs of
abuse such as cocaine, cannabis, and amphetamines.

.

.

.









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#9 Amber

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المزاج الحالي: مبتهج

تاريخ المشاركة 02/10/2010 - 18:01










Metronidazole (Anabact, Elyzol
Flagyl, Metrogel, Metrolyl, Metrotop,
Rozex, Zadstat)


.


.


Description

A nitroimidazole antimicrobial drug.

Indications

Anaerobic bacterial infections such as dental abscesses, acute pericoronitis
and acute ulcerative gingivitis.

Presentations

(i) 200 mg and 400 mg tablets.
(ii) An oral suspension (200 mg/5 mL).
(iii) An intravenous infusion (5 mg/mL).
(iv) A topical preparation for application in the gingival sulcus.
(v) 500 mg suppositories.

Dose

400 mg orally three times daily for 7 days, or 500 mg twice daily
intravenously.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity.
High doses contraindicated in pregnancy and during breastfeeding.

Precautions

Avoid alcohol as severe side effects occur (disulfiram-like [antabuse]
reaction).
Liver disease.

Unwanted effects

Hypersensitivity reactions.
Blackening of tongue.
Altered (metallic) taste.
Gastrointestinal upset.
Headache, dizziness, and ataxia.
Dark urine.
Prolonged therapy can produce seizures, neuropathy, and leucopenia.

Drug interactions

The disulfiram reaction with alcohol is very unpleasant. This is
caused by metronidazole inhibiting the metabolism of alcohol, leading
to a build-up of aldehydes which produce nausea and vomitting.
Similarly, metronidazole interacts with disulfiram and can cause
psychosis and confusion. In addition a disulfiram-like reaction may
occur during concurrent therapy with the antiviral agent ritinovir.
Ritinovir increases the serum level of metronidazole.
The anticoagulant effect of warfarin is significantly increased by metronidazole.
The anti-cholesterol drug cholestyramine and the antacid
aluminium hydroxide reduce the absorption of metronidazole and
thus dosing of these agents should be separated. Corticosteroids and
barbiturates increase metronidazole loss and increased dosing of the
antimicrobial is necessary. Similarly rifampicin increases the loss of
metronidazole but the importance of this is unknown.
Metronidazole may increase the serum levels of carbamazepine and
increase the toxicity of the latter drug. Similarly, plasma levels of
phenytoin rise with combined therapy with metronidazole. Metronidazole
may decrease the efficacy of oral contraceptives and other
means of contraception are advised during antibiotic therapy. Metronidazole
may increase serum ciclosporin levels and combined
therapy should be closely monitored. Metronidazole increases the
toxicity of lithium carbonate and the cytotoxic drug 5-fluorouracil.

.

.

.








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#10 true

true

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المزاج الحالي: لا مزاج

تاريخ المشاركة 02/10/2010 - 20:21







:cream::thanks:







الـتـوقـيــع
لما تجلت همة الأسد وظهرت شجاعته سمته العرب مائة أسم، فخذوا من الأسد ثلاثاً: لا ترهب المواقف، ولا تعاظم الخصوم، ولا ترض الحياة مع الذل.




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