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A Drug / day


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#21 ابو راقع

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المزاج الحالي: مبتهج

تاريخ المشاركة 12/10/2010 - 22:18







شكرا جزيلا







الـتـوقـيــع
صورة

شكرا عزوز على الإهداء
الكيس من دان نفسه وعمل لما بعد الموت
والعاجز من أتبع نفسه هواها وتمنى على الله الأماني


#22 Amber

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المزاج الحالي: مبتهج

تاريخ المشاركة 13/10/2010 - 16:03







شكرا جزيلا


صورة










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#23 Amber

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المزاج الحالي: مبتهج

تاريخ المشاركة 13/10/2010 - 16:12








Amphotericin (Fungilin, Fungizone)


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Description


A polyene antifungal.


Indications


Used to treat candidal infections.


Presentations


(i) 100 mg tablets.

(ii) 10 mg lozenges.

(iii) 100 mg/mL oral suspension.

(iv) A 50 mg powder for reconstitution for intravenous infusion.


Dose


For oral infection suck one lozenge four times a day or place 1 mL of

the oral suspension over the lesion four times daily for up to 14 days.


Contraindications


Other than allergy there are no contraindications to topical use.Precautions

None for topical use but parenteral administration requires close

monitoring and a test dose. Combined therapy with cyclosporin and

cardiac glycosides (such as digoxin) should be avoided.


Unwanted effects


Gastrointestinal disturbances.

Renal damage.

Hypokalaemia.

Myopathy and neuropathy.


Drug interactions


Antifungal action is decreased during combined therapy with fluconazole,

ketoconazole, and miconazole. Parenterally administered

amphotericin has increased nephrotoxicity when administered with

aminoglycoside antibiotics (e.g. gentamycin, vancomycin, and cyclosporin).

Amphotericin can produce potassium loss (hypokalaemia)

and this is exacerbated during concurrent treatment with corticosteroids.

Similarly, the risk of hypokalaemia is increased during combined

therapy with non-potassium sparing diuretics. Combined therapy

with pentamidine, which is a drug used to treat pneumocystis pneumonia

in AIDS patients, can lead to acute renal failure. Similarly the

antiviral agent zalcitabine, which is used in the management of HIV,

has increased toxicity when given concurrently with amphotericin.


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#24 محمد بكري

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المزاج الحالي: مكافح

تاريخ المشاركة 14/10/2010 - 22:31







thanks Amber صورة
and go ahead we are waiting







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الحمد لله الذي عرفنا بأنه رحمن رحيم ...
وان رحمته سبقة عدله سبحانه


#25 Amber

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المزاج الحالي: مبتهج

تاريخ المشاركة 16/10/2010 - 16:02







thanks Amber صورة

and go ahead we are waiting


You're welcome


.








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#26 Amber

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المزاج الحالي: مبتهج

تاريخ المشاركة 16/10/2010 - 16:05








Mefenamic acid (Ponstan)



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Description


A peripherally acting, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic.


Indications


Pain and inflammation associated with musculoskeletal disorders,

e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.

Dysmenorrhoea and menorrhagia.


Effects on oral and dental structures


Patients on long-term NSAIDs such as mefenamic acid may be

afforded some degree of protection against periodontal breakdown.

This arises from the drug’s inhibitory action on prostaglandin synthesis.

The latter is an important inflammatory mediator in the

pathogenesis of periodontal breakdown.


Effects on patient management


Rare unwanted effects of mefenamic acid include angioedema and

thrombocytopenia. The latter may cause an increased bleeding tendency

following any dental surgical procedure. If the platelet count is

low (100,000) then the socket should be packed and sutured. Persistent

bleeding may require a platelet transfusion.


Drug interactions


Ibuprofen, aspirin and diflunisal should be avoided in patients taking

mefenamic acid due to an increase in unwanted effects, especially

gastrointestinal ulceration, renal, and liver damage. Systemic corticosteroids

increase the risk of peptic ulceration and gastrointestinal

bleeding.



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#27 Amber

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المزاج الحالي: مبتهج

تاريخ المشاركة 16/10/2010 - 16:06









Ranitidine (Zantac)



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Description


A histamine H2-receptor antagonist.


Indications


Used in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulceration and reflux.


Effects on oral and dental structures


This drug occasionally causes erythema multiforme. The underlying

condition of reflux can lead to erosion of the teeth, especially the

palatal surfaces. H2-receptor antagonists may cause pain and swelling

of the salivary glands.


Effects on patient management


Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided due to

gastrointestinal irritation. Similarly, high dose systemic steroids

should not be prescribed in patients with gastrointestinal ulceration.

The patient may prefer to avoid the supine position due to their

underlying gastrointestinal problem. High doses of the long-acting

local anaesthetic bupivacaine should be avoided (see below). This

drug occasionally causes a pancytopenia which can affect postoperative

healing and haemorrhage control.


Drug interactions


Ranitidine may decrease the absorption of the antifungals itraconazole

and ketoconazole. It may also increase the plasma levels of the

long-acting local anaesthetic bupivacaine.


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#28 Amber

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المزاج الحالي: مبتهج

تاريخ المشاركة 16/10/2010 - 16:08








Sulfadimidine


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Description


A sulfonamide antibiotic.


Indications


Used in the treatment of urinary tract infections.


Effects on oral and dental structures


Stomatitis, glossitis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, fixed drug eruptions,

and candidiasis can occur.


Effects on patient management


This drug may cause thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, and anaemia.

Thrombocytopenia may cause postoperative bleeding. If the

platelet count is low (<100,000) then sockets should be packed and

sutured. Persistent bleeding may require platelet transfusion.

Agranulocytosis and anaemia may result in poor healing. Any anaemia

will need correction prior to elective general anaesthesia and

sedation.


Drug interactions


There is an increased chance of methaemoglobinaemia when used

in combination with prilocaine, including topical use of the anaesthetic.

The effects of the anticoagulants warfarin and nicoumalone

are enhanced during combined therapy. The plasma concentration

of phenytoin may be increased.


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#29 Amber

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المزاج الحالي: مبتهج

تاريخ المشاركة 18/10/2010 - 18:32








Heparin


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Description


An anticoagulant drug.


Indications


Initial treatment and prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary

embolism. Used to prevent blood coagulation in patients on

haemodialysis.


Effects on oral and dental structures


No direct effect, although patients who are repeatedly heparinized

are susceptible to osteoporosis. This latter condition may make such

patients susceptible to periodontal breakdown.


Effects on patient management


Heparin can only be given parenterally which reduces the impact of

the drug in dental practice. However dentists, especially those working

in a hospital environment, will encounter patients who are

heparinized on a regular basis (e.g. renal dialysis patients). Bleeding

is the main problem with treating such patients. This can arise as a

direct effect on the blood coagulation system or from a druginduced

immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. From the coagulation

perspective, it is the best to treat heparinized patients between

treatments since the half-life of the drug is approximately 4 hours. If

urgent treatment is required, then the anticoagulation effect of heparin

can be reversed with protamine sulphate 10 mg IV. If bleeding is

due to thrombocytopenia then a platelet transfusion may be required

and patients transferred to a heparinoid such as danaparoid.


Drug interactions


Aspirin and parenteral NSAIDs (e.g. diclofenac and ketorolac) should

be avoided in patients who are taking heparin or who are heparinized

on a regular basis. Such analgesics cause impairment of platelet aggregation

which would compound a heparin-induced thrombocytopenia

and likewise cause serious problems with obtaining haemostasis.


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#30 Amber

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المزاج الحالي: مبتهج

تاريخ المشاركة 18/10/2010 - 18:35







Propofol (Diprivan)


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Description


A general anaesthetic agent.


Indications


Although the main use is to induce general anaesthesia it is also

employed as an intravenous infusion for conscious sedation in

dentistry.


Effects on oral and dental structures


Propofol can produce xerostomia and altered taste.


Effects on patient management


Used to produce sedation in dentistry.


Drug interactions


Propofol increases the effects of other central nervous system depressants.

Cocaine (even after topical application) and propofol in combination

may produce seizures.


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